How Delphi Smart Diesel Fuel Injection Technology Works
The Delphi smart injector for medium to heavy duty diesel engines is a high pressure, electronically-controlled diesel fuel injector that is designed to be combined with the Delphi electronic unit pump (EUP). This combination provides a complete high pressure fuel delivery system for “cam in block” engines or engines with separate cam boxes.
Currently, only Delphi combines an electronic unit pump with an electronically-controlled smart injector for DAF engine applications. The injector’s nozzle control valve is electronically-controlled, which helps to reduce fuel consumption and improve performance, all while meeting the most stringent emissions regulations.
When paired with a smart injector, the precise start of injection can be further adjusted by the injector control circuit. Delphi’s EUP’s use proven valve technology from Delphi’s EUI product line. When used in conjunction with the high pressure electronically-controlled smart injector, the EUP provides a complete high-pressure fuel delivery system for heavy duty engines.
The EUP (electronic unit pump) operates in the following manner:
- Filling plunger descending, valve open
- Pre-spill plunger rising, valve open
- Pumping plunger rising, valve closed
- Spill plunger rising, valve open – refer to diagram below
The pumping mechanism is identical to an inline or single cylinder pump. The plunger – which is driven by the camshaft – moves up and down in the body. Pressurised fuel moves freely from the engine fuel manifold, through the pump, and back into the manifold.
At a certain point during the pressure stroke, current is supplied to the actuator. This current generates a magnetic field within the actuator and causes the high-pressure valve to close.
Once this valve is closed, fuel cannot exit the unit back into the engine fuel manifold. The action of the plunger upon the fuel creates very high pressure.
Due to the precise operation of both the EUP and smart injectors, specialised Delphi tooling and test equipment is required to be able to repair, test and calibrate EUP and smart injectors.
Cornells, an authorised Delphi repairer, has all the tooling and equipment required to offer customers testing, overhaul and new replacement EUP and smart injectors. For more information please contact us on +61 3 9267 8800
EGRs – what they do, how they work, how to troubleshoot
Part of a vehicle’s engine management system, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve recirculates finely metered quantities of exhaust gas to the engine intake system for increased engine efficiency, and reduced fuel consumption and NOx emissions.
With growing pressure to reduce emissions, the EGR valve will play an increasingly important role moving forward. It’s important to know what it does, why it fails and how to replace it when it does fail.
The EGR valve effectively changes the air entering the engine. With less oxygen, the air mixture burns slower, lowers temperature in the combustion chamber by almost 150°C, and reduces NOx production for a cleaner, more efficient exhaust.
The EGR valve has two primary settings: open and closed, although the position can vary between the EGR valve being closed and when the engine is starting up. During idle and at low speeds, only a small amount of power is required, and therefore only a small amount of oxygen, so the valve gradually opens – it can be up to 90% open at idle.
However, as more torque and power are required (eg. during full acceleration), the EGR valve closes to ensure as much oxygen enters the cylinder as possible. EGR valves can be used to improve combustion efficiency and knock tolerance. In diesels, it can also help to reduce diesel knock at idle.
Types of EGR valve
Although there are several types of EGR valves, earlier systems use a vacuum-operated valve, while newer vehicles are electronically-controlled. The main types of EGR’s are summarised below:
- Diesel high pressure EGR valves divert the high-flow, high-soot exhaust gas before it enters the diesel particulate filter – the soot combines with oil vapor to create sludge. The gas is then passed back to the inlet manifold, either via a pipe or internal drillings in the cylinder head. A secondary valve is also used to help create a vacuum in the inlet manifold, as this is not naturally present on diesel engines.
- Diesel Low pressure EGR valves divert the exhaust gas after it has passed through the diesel particulate filter. This gas has a lower flow, but is almost completely clean of soot. The gas is then passed back to the inlet manifold via a pipe.
- Gasoline EGR valves divert the exhaust gases, much like the high-pressure diesel equivalent. The vacuum created by cylinder depression, draws the exhaust gases in. The flow is regulated by the opening and closing of the EGR valve.
- Vacuum operated EGR valves use a vacuum solenoid to vary the vacuum to the diaphragm, and open and close the EGR. Some valves also include a feedback sensor to inform the ECU of the valves position.
- Digital EGR valves feature a solenoid or stepper motor and, in most cases, a feedback sensor. These valves receive a pulse width modulated signal from the ECU to regulate exhaust gas flow.
Why do EGR valves fail?
EGR valves operate in a complex environment and are prone to wear and tear. However, the single biggest cause of failure is the buildup of carbon particles from the exhaust gases along the EGR and intake system passages. Over time, this will clog tubes, exhaust gas channels and eventually the valve’s plunger mechanism, causing it to either stick in the open or closed position. Failures can also be caused by a rupture or leak in the valve diaphragm.
The symptoms associated with EGR valve failure are similar to those of many other engine management components, and because of this, EGR faults continue to be a source of headaches for many technicians. However, there are a few signs to look out for, such as:
- Check engine light: as with most engine management components, a problem with the EGR valve may trigger the check engine light.
- Engine performance issues: if the valve is stuck open, the vehicle’s air-fuel ratio will be disrupted causing engine performance issues such as reduced power, poor acceleration and rough idle. It may also produce turbo boost pressure leaks, causing the turbo to work harder.
- Increased NOx emissions: when the EGR valve remains closed, the resultant high temperatures in the combustion chamber will leave a lot of unburned fuel in the exhaust, leading to increased NOx emissions and reduced fuel efficiency.
- Engine knock: the higher temperatures and NOx may also result in increased detonation or knock, heard as knocking noises in the engine.
Troubleshooting an EGR valve
Given the different types of EGR valves, it is always best to follow the troubleshooting procedures detailed in the service manual. However, there are a few common steps that can help to perform diagnostics:
- Read fault codes using a Diagnostic Scan Tool* capable of reading fault codes in the EGR system.
- Check that all vacuum lines and electrical connections are connected and positioned correctly.
- Use a vacuum gauge to check the vacuum supply hose for vacuum at 2000 to 2500 rpm. No vacuum at normal operating temperatures would suggest a loose hose, a blocked or faulty ported vacuum switch or solenoid, or a faulty vacuum amplifier/pump.
- Check the vacuum solenoid while engine is running. On electronically-controlled EGR valves, activate the solenoid with a scan tool and check the vacuum at end of pipe. If the solenoid does not open when energised, is stuck in the open or closed position, or has a corroded electrical connection, loose wire or bad ground, EGR operation will be affected.
- If possible, check the movement of the valve stem at 1500 to 2000 rpm. The valve stem should move if the valve is functioning correctly. If not, and there’s vacuum, there’s a fault.
- Apply vacuum directly to the EGR valve using either a hand vacuum pump or scan tool depending on the type of EGR valve. If there is no change in idle quality, then either the EGR valve is faulty or the passages are completely restricted. If the engine idles rough or stalls, the problem is being caused by a malfunctioning control system.
- Remove the EGR valve and check for carbon build up. Where possible, remove any carbon, being careful not to contaminate the diaphragm.
- Inspect the EGR passageway in the manifold for clogging and clean if required.
*The ease of replacing an EGR – as with the advancement in EGR technology – has become more complex and time-consuming. In the past, EGR replacement could be done in hours. Now, EGR replacement can take up to 8 hours on some passenger vehicles. That’s why it’s imperative to have a scan tool that has strong emissions testing and calibrating capabilities to help diagnose EGR related issues.
At Cornell’s we have put a lot of time and effort in understanding and diagnosing EGR systems and their failures. Our qualified technicians have built up a wealth of knowledge that helps them diagnose EGR system failures quicker, and helps to reduce the cost of EGR repairs. For further information please call us on 03 9267 8800
From 80’s Radiators to 20’s Performance Leaders
PWR pioneered automotive radiator manufacturing in the mid 80’s, working from a small factory on the Gold Coast. They initially operated under the name, Paul Weel Radiators. Today, PWR Performance is still a proudly Australian-owned company, and we are proud to be their distributor in the southern states of Australia. We don’t compromise on quality and we have chosen PWR Performance as a primary supplier when recommending intercoolers, transmission coolers, and radiators to our customers.
Highest Quality Standards of Manufacturing & Testing
PWR’s impressive range of standard passenger vehicle intercoolers and radiators are individually hand-manufactured using 12 fins per square inch, replacing your current OEM system for better flow and performance. PWR’s standard intercoolers feature standard mounting points that are equivalent to OEM, unique welding points, bar and fin core design, and anti-slip technology in the billet fittings. The whole intake system gets replaced with PWR’s high-quality solid piping. All PWR Performance Products are tested to extreme conditions – in an atmospherically-controlled braze furnace and on-site wind tunnel – to guarantee the highest standards are achieved.
With their vertical manufacturing and testing facilities, PWR Performance cooling products can be custom designed by their in-house design division, for applications that require modifications, such as in high-end motorsport applications. PWR Performance has become a highly-respected and sought-after specialist manufacturer of race and competition heat exchange performance products. To augment their outstanding reputation in motorsports, PWR Performance invests 6% of its revenue in dedicated cooling R&D to suit specific vehicle and race team needs.
For further information or a free, no-obligation quote on PWR Performance intercoolers or other performance products, please call Cornell’s friendly staff on 03 9267 8800
Steinbauer Power Modules
Steinbauer Performance is an independent manufacturer and supplier of electronic Power Modules for the modern diesel and turbocharged petrol engines. Steinbauer has become a global leader and sets the benchmark for performance.
Steinbauer has taken diesel tuning to the next level by designing a full plug and play module that performs with your engines ECU, and controls fuel metering by extending the injection pulse rate, rather than increasing the rail pressures like many aftermarket performance module/chip options.
Steinbauer Power Modules are not just made for performance, but also for fuel economy. Steinbauer guarantees up to 20% more power and torque, enabling your engine to work less, create better fuel economy and increase its life.
Steinbauer has engineered and designed a Power Module for most vehicles. Applications range from passenger vehicles and commercial vehicles (light and heavy), to marine vessels and agricultural machinery. Steinbauer Power Modules have been designed under the most challenging conditions of dust, moisture and vibration to ensure reliability. Steinbauer Power Modules are a smart investment if you want your extra power to come with reliability and longer engine life.
The added bonus with the Steinbauer Power Module is that it won’t affect your new vehicle’s manufacturer’s warranty, and can be removed at any time. All Steinbauer Power Modules come with a 3-year manufacturer’s warranty and product guarantee.
Fuel Manager Diesel Filter Kits
Modern diesel engines are equipped with advanced high-pressure injection systems that can be easily damaged by poor quality fuel or, more frequently, contaminated fuel.
Common Rail (CR) diesel systems can run up to 40,000 psi. Many of these systems are intolerant to water and dirt particles and, if contaminated, result in costly engine repairs.
One way to provide better protection for your diesel engine is to install an additional fuel filter and water separator. Most CR systems only have one factory filter, so installing the additional filter is highly recommended, if not essential. Fuel Manager manufacture several options to meet each vehicle’s requirement.
Primary (Pre) Filter – 30 Micron
Plumbed before your factory fuel filter and rated at 30 microns, the Primary (Pre) Filter prolongs the service life of your factory OEM filter. A 30-micron filter will remove particles the size of 30 x 1000ths of a millimeter. This may sound very small, and it is, but not small enough to protect modern high-pressure CR fuel systems. Most factory filters on modern CR systems are rated at 10 micron.
Secondary (Final) Filter – 2 and 5 microns
Plumbed after the factory filter as a last line of defence, the secondary filter in both 2 and 5 microns will effectively remove any water or contaminants that make it past your factory filter. A 2-micron final filter will remove particles the size of just 2 x 1000th of a millimeter.
We stock a full range of fuel filter kits (including Hilux as shown for illustration only) designed specifically for easy install, to save you time and money. If you require more information please contact our friendly staff on 03 9267 8800
Pacific Power experiences the Cornell Difference
Pacific Power Engineering maintains power utilities for waste water, oil pumping stations, and generators in all mining sectors across the Pacific islands and southern Asian region. As a service provider to Pacific Power Engineering, Cornell Diesel Systems is currently servicing and maintaining all major Government power plant equipment and Pacific Power Ruston RKC diesel-powered generators across the Pacific islands.
Pacific Power Ruston RKC Generators
The Ruston RKC generator engine is in a power station on the island of Nauru, and is one of Pacific Power’s large frame engines that provides power for residential homes, businesses, airport and all major government buildings.
Pacific Power’s generators have a capacity of 2.9-megawatt output. Their Ruston RKC generators are periodically overhauled in two stages: cylinder heads are serviced at 6000hrs, and all other major parts and components are overhauled at 12000hrs.
Diesel Fuel Injection Services
All diesel fuel injection components are overhauled at 2000 running hours. All components are broken down in our ISO-certified, pressurised clean room and inspected by a fully-certified accredited technician.
Cornell Diesel Systems is proud to have the specialised knowledge required to service all large frame applications, providing end-to-end service of large frame power generator fuel systems across the Pacific region on behalf of Pacific Power.
HPD Catch Cans
The HPD Catch Can is one of the simplest and most effective accessories you can fit to a turbo-diesel engine.
To meet ever stricter emissions regulations, manufacturers of diesel engines have used Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), which diverts sooty exhaust gases back into the engine to be burned again, reducing particulate emissions.
The engine breather pipe sends air from inside the crankcase into the intake as well. The fine oil mist in this air combines with the soot from EGR to form a sticky deposit that builds up to the point that it affects the breathing of the engine, clogs EGR valves and jams turbo actuator flaps.
HPD has tackled this problem with a catch can that filters out damaging oil mist and condensation from the air entering the inlet passage. The HPD catch can does not vent to the atmosphere, so it’s compliant with Australian Design Rules and Standards.
The oil reservoir has a dipstick for easy monitoring of the oil level, and unscrews for easy emptying when required. The mesh filters require little maintenance – only occasional cleaning – so you don’t need to spend money replenishing filters.
Designed and manufactured in Australia from billet aluminium, HPD catch can kits come complete with laser cut brackets, silicon hoses, and all clamps and fasteners needed to complete a factory look fitment.
Benefits of using a Catch Can
- Maintains vehicle performance, power and efficiency
- Reduces carbon and oil build up in the inlet manifold
- Stops oily residue build up in the intercooler
- Ensures clean air is delivered to the engine
- Protects turbo bearings from corrosion
Advantages of fitting a HPD Catch Can
- Dipstick to check oil level
- Washable filter (no need to replace)
- 360° rotating inlet to assist fitment
- Universal stainless steel fitment bracket
- Easy step-by-step fitment guide
- 100% Australian made and engineered
To find out more about HPD catch cans and why we recommend them over others, give our friendly sales team a call on 03 9267 8800.
What is a DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter)?
A DPF is used in diesel vehicles that comply with Euro-6 emission standards. The manufacturers use the DPF to filter, store and burn the soot particles that are emitted as a result of the combustion process of the diesel engine. DPF’s come in a common cylindrical unit. The DPF consists of silicon carbide. It can filter about 99% of solid particulate matter from the exhaust of a diesel engine. The soot particles or the carbon particles deposit on the filter channels are oxidised into carbon dioxide at exhaust temperatures above 600degC. Basic DPF’s are the single use type. You need to dispose or replace them when they get full, after accumulating ash and when regeneration is no longer possible.
What are Particulates?
Particulates are a form of carbon that accumulates in the exhaust system of the vehicle’s engine, originating from various leftovers that define what type they are. In term of vehicles, particulates are the minute solid particles of exhaust gases emitted from the engine. The engine emits these particulates mainly in the form of carbon or soot. The particulate matter forms a layer of carbon inside the exhaust system of the engine. This is the main reason why taking care of the exhaust system of the engine is so important. It is necessary to limit the quantity of emitted carbon particulates to prevent environmental pollution.
How does a DPF work?
The unfiltered exhaust flows through the DPF’S channels that open at the inlet end. The core contains porous walls of a ceramic honeycomb structure made of silicon carbide. The exhaust gases then enter into the channels that are open at the outlet end. The exhaust system takes away the exhaust gases. The DPF core retains the soot particles and later burns them off during the regeneration process. The ECU computes the amount of soot and ash accumulation in the DPF with the help of the DPF differential pressure sensor.
Components of a DPF
The temperature sensor upstream of the DPF detects the temperature of the exhaust before it enters the DPF. The integral resistor changes its electrical resistance according to the exhaust temperature and then sends a corresponding voltage signal to the ECU control unit. The control unit uses the voltage signal to monitor the rise in exhaust temperature before and during the regeneration process. The DPF differential pressure sensor detects the difference between the exhaust upstream and downstream of the DPF. The exhaust pressure sampling pipes – upstream and downstream of the DPF – detect the exhaust pressure difference. The pressure difference between the exhaust pressures upstream and downstream of the DPF acts on the piezo electric pressure sensor element. This produces a voltage which is passed into the ECU as a voltage signal.
What is Regeneration?
Regeneration is the process that burns off the soot particles accumulated in the DPF as C02. The regeneration takes place when the ECU detects a certain pressure difference in the DPF, then at a certain speed usually above 80kph the DPF temperatures will raise to about 600 degrees Celsius, causing the soot build up to burn away. This will continue until the pressures in the DPF fall back into specification. That is why it is recommended that a vehicle with a DPF be driven on a freeway at least 20 minutes every week to initiate a regeneration (please consult vehicle owner’s handbook).
Since the late 1990s many diesel vehicles have a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) or Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT) turbo fitted. These turbos minimise turbo lag, improve throttle response at low speed and provide much improved torque.
Most commonly, the design utilises a ring of moveable vanes around the turbine wheel to change the speed and direction of the exhaust gases acting on the turbine wheel. At low speeds the vanes move closer together which accelerates the gas flow onto the turbine wheel. At higher speeds the vanes open wider to prevent the turbo over boosting.
Despite these benefits, turbos can be prone to problems, which include:
Driving comes with many risks, but the simple task of fuelling up isn’t risk-free either. If you’ve ever put petrol in your diesel vehicle, you’re not alone in making that mistake. According to the Royal Automobile Association of South Australia (RAA), 7500 misfuelling events, of people doing just that, occur every year nationally. This mistake could cost you your engine if you don’t deal with it properly, however, there are actions you can take to minimise the cost of repairs.